The removal of benzene from groundwater

Introduction

Benzene is harmful both to living organisms and the environment and should, therefore, be extracted from water. Phosphoric acid and activated carbon from the rice husk are used in this process. A rapid intake of benzene was observed. A thorough analysis of kinetic data using various techniques proved that the data fitted in pseudo-second order models. The results point to the fact that chemisorption took place. Additionally, rice husks were found to have better benzene adsorption capacity compared to other adsorbents.

Questions

Who did the research and where? The study was conducted in Egypt where the rice husks were locally available. Students from the King Saud University were responsible for carrying out the research.

How was the research conducted and with what materials and methods (experimentally or otherwise)? The study was conducted experimentally. The main materials used were rice husks and n=benzene. Rice hulls were obtained locally and their dimensions measured and recorded. A kinetic study was carried out based on the plotted adsorption profile. Techniques such as pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, and the Elovich kinetic equation models were employed in the kinetic study. Informed judgment was passed based on a comparison between the experimental and theoretical values.

What were the results of the research? Single curves were obtained. These were smooth and continuous, and they led to saturation were obtained. Figures of the uptake of benzene indicate a quick uptake between zero to thirty minutes. The absorption rate slowly decreases up to the fortieth minute with no indication of uptake after that point.

How were they interpreted? The curves obtained signify possible monolayer benzene coverage on the surface of the rice husks. The curves also indicate that benzene absorption increases with time until it reaches a point of equilibrium after forty minutes.  The rapid absorption in the initial stages is a result of the availability of many vacant adsorption sites for benzene of the bulk solution. As time goes by, the number of vacant sites decrease hence benzene molecules compete for these available sites. It explains why the curve’s slope reduces.  Consequently, one can deduce that benzene adsorption on rice husks depends on the film diffusion process. The process is activated by the high concentration difference between the bulk solution (benzene solution) and the pores of the adsorbent (the rice husks).

Why is this study significant to biology and to humanity? Toxic Benzene is absorbed mainly through the skin and by inhalation. When benzene is applied to the surface, a large portion is absorbed while the rest rapidly volatilizes. When inhaled, about 47% of the inhaled vapors are not excreted by the lungs. Biologically, such statistics are useful for the formulation of preventive and curative measures. One can understand the effects of this toxic organic pollutant. Additionally, this study enables human beings to understand the importance of water treatment. After realizing the dangers of exposure to this pollutant, one becomes more cautious about the things they consume.

Conclusion

Any scientific experiment is a milestone to humanity. Scientists devote their time to perform tests whose results should be taken into account. Recommendations that come with these results should be accorded the seriousness that they deserve. Some of them could be life-changing. As is the case of the removal of benzene from rice water, such an experiment is enlightening to people who insist on using water that has not been treated.

5 Gadgets to Make Your Home More Eco-Friendly

 

Gadgets usually don’t have a good reputation when it comes to environmental protection. They use a lot of energy and there are still not enough alternatives to recycle them. In addition, their innovation pace is so big that people are tempted to change their gadgets very fast and so produce even more waste. However, there is some good news in all this situation. Producers have understood that it is important to conserve the natural resources and “go green”.

So, now you have the opportunity to use eco-friendly gadgets and protect the environment. If you are an eco-minded consumer, you will have plenty of options to choose from. Keep reading this article and you will find which are the top 5 eco-friendly gadgets that you can use at home.

Top 5 eco-friendly gadgets for your home

  1. Electricity-free espresso

Have you ever imagined how your life would look like without your coffee machine? Do you know that you can prepare a rich coffee with an eco-friendly gadget? You can now use the person-powered espresso maker. You don’t need any electricity or expensive coffee pods to prepare a strong espresso. Everything is in your hands. You are the one who chooses the coffee, the grind, and you will use your hands’ pressure to produce a coffee exactly how you like it. What is more, you will be able to prepare more than just espresso. If you are a fan of foamy cappuccino, then you can use the stainless steel frothier and prepare the best cappuccino ever.

  1. Bamboo speakers

Bamboo is considered one of the most sustainable materials. It can also be turned into an eco-friendly gadget that you can use in your home. Apple has developed the iBamboo, which consist of portable Bamboo speakers compatible with the iPhone 4 model and above. The wonderful thing about these speakers is that they don’t use any electricity at all. This material amplifies the sound without any additional technology. iBamboo speakers look extremely chic also. What is more, they are very simple to use.

  1. Solar chargers

Solar panels are known for their efficiency in reducing your carbon footprint and helping you save money on your energy bill. If you can’t afford to invest in a rooftop with solar panels, you can start by buying a solar panel charger. There are several models on the market which you can use to charge your laptop or phone with a battery of less than 13 watts. This is a portable charger and it isn’t bigger than an iPad. So, it will be very easy to carry it with you everywhere and save a lot of energy at the same time.

  1. Smart thermostat

The heating systems are some of the biggest energy consumers. Moreover, when you come back home after a long day, you will have to wait until your heating system does its work and you get a constant temperature in your room. With the eco-friendly thermostat, you won’t need to deal with all these anymore. Thanks to the smart thermostat you can fix the ideal temperature for your house and control it using an app installed on your smartphone. Thus, you will save a lot of energy and money. In addition, you will no longer return to a cold home, but to a cozy and welcoming one.

  1. Smart plugs

Wouldn’t it be great to control your plugged-in devices using an app on your phone? Now, you can choose a smart plug which helps you track how much energy your devices are using. This is an excellent method to keep your energy bill under control. What is more, you can use the app to obtain several reports, determining which are the biggest energy consumers.

Eco-friendly gadgets are more affordable than you would think. When you decide to buy such a device, you should take into consideration not only the paid price, but also what amount you save on the long-term. In addition, the positive effect you have on the environment is priceless.