Fire Inspection Water Supply Systems

A fire hydrant is a vigorous fire defense and joining portion that the firefighters can bang into a liquid source. Different types of fire hydrants exist according to the purpose and locality. For this reason, the paper seeks to find out the type of hydrants appropriate in a given community as well as the testing and maintenance measures for the hydrant. The paper will also provide the spacing requirements for the fire hydrants based on the local needs. Finally, it will offer the inspection needs of the fire hydrants installed.

The community comprises of several dwellings including single dwellings, multiple dwellings, and commercial dwellings. Because of the difference in occupancy, installation of different types of hydrants will take place in this location. The difference in the kind of hydrant will also depend on the climatic conditions. The type selection is by the local requirements. In so doing, installation of two different types of hydrants will occur in this location (Liley & Danielson, 2012). The first category is the dry riser hydrant. Dry riser barrel installation will take place in regions where temperatures are expected to drop below the freezing point. On the other hand, wet riser hydrant installation will occur in areas where the temperatures do not fall below the freezing point.

The dry riser hydrants testing process includes the use of pipes filled with air pumped into the house, to reduce the effects of fire. Wet riser hydrants include pipes with water from the water supply connected to the valves in the buildings within the locality to reduce fire effects. For proper and better operation of both the wet and dry hydrants, maintenance is critical (Gary, 2010). Due to the difference in operation, they undergo different types of maintenance. The dry riser hydrant has two main type of services, visual inspection, and annual pressure test. Visual inspection helps in identifying any substantial leakage in the hydrant. Since dry hydrant uses air, it is essential to verify the pressure regularly to ensure the pressure level is within the required standards. Consequently, wet hydrant has three kinds of services. Visual inspection, electric pump servicing, and flow test. Wet riser hydrant uses water in the pipe. Visual inspection help in identifying any form of leakages in the pipes. There is a connection between the pipes and electric points to avoid electrical shocks. Doing electric servicing is essential. Finally, the flow test helps to keep the flow of water in the pipes above the required standards. 

There are different fire hydrant spacing requirements for the separate dwellings within the locality. Single dwellings will have a spacing of 400 feet. Multiple dwellings will have a spacing of 250 feet, and the commercial dwellings will have a spacing of 300 feet.

The fire hydrants will require periodic inspection to ensure a better operation of the fire hydrants. The local municipalities will do the inspection. During the inspection, the head of the hydrant requires much attention. Lubrication takes place in the head, and the head gaskets restored or replaced in case of breakage. Replacement of O-rings occurs annually. It is essential to inspect the lubricants periodically.





The removal of benzene from groundwater


Benzene is harmful both to living organisms and the environment and should, therefore, be extracted from water. Phosphoric acid and activated carbon from the rice husk are used in this process. A rapid intake of benzene was observed. A thorough analysis of kinetic data using various techniques proved that the data fitted in pseudo-second order models. The results point to the fact that chemisorption took place. Additionally, rice husks were found to have better benzene adsorption capacity compared to other adsorbents.


Who did the research and where? The study was conducted in Egypt where the rice husks were locally available. Students from the King Saud University were responsible for carrying out the research.

How was the research conducted and with what materials and methods (experimentally or otherwise)? The study was conducted experimentally. The main materials used were rice husks and n=benzene. Rice hulls were obtained locally and their dimensions measured and recorded. A kinetic study was carried out based on the plotted adsorption profile. Techniques such as pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order, and the Elovich kinetic equation models were employed in the kinetic study. Informed judgment was passed based on a comparison between the experimental and theoretical values.

What were the results of the research? Single curves were obtained. These were smooth and continuous, and they led to saturation were obtained. Figures of the uptake of benzene indicate a quick uptake between zero to thirty minutes. The absorption rate slowly decreases up to the fortieth minute with no indication of uptake after that point.

How were they interpreted? The curves obtained signify possible monolayer benzene coverage on the surface of the rice husks. The curves also indicate that benzene absorption increases with time until it reaches a point of equilibrium after forty minutes.  The rapid absorption in the initial stages is a result of the availability of many vacant adsorption sites for benzene of the bulk solution. As time goes by, the number of vacant sites decrease hence benzene molecules compete for these available sites. It explains why the curve’s slope reduces.  Consequently, one can deduce that benzene adsorption on rice husks depends on the film diffusion process. The process is activated by the high concentration difference between the bulk solution (benzene solution) and the pores of the adsorbent (the rice husks).

Why is this study significant to biology and to humanity? Toxic Benzene is absorbed mainly through the skin and by inhalation. When benzene is applied to the surface, a large portion is absorbed while the rest rapidly volatilizes. When inhaled, about 47% of the inhaled vapors are not excreted by the lungs. Biologically, such statistics are useful for the formulation of preventive and curative measures. One can understand the effects of this toxic organic pollutant. Additionally, this study enables human beings to understand the importance of water treatment. After realizing the dangers of exposure to this pollutant, one becomes more cautious about the things they consume.


Any scientific experiment is a milestone to humanity. Scientists devote their time to perform tests whose results should be taken into account. Recommendations that come with these results should be accorded the seriousness that they deserve. Some of them could be life-changing. As is the case of the removal of benzene from rice water, such an experiment is enlightening to people who insist on using water that has not been treated.